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Pho - The most famous Vietnamese dish in the world

Pho is the most famous Vietnamese dish with international tourists. Pho is a traditional dish of Vietnam, originating from Hanoi and Nam Dinh, and is considered one of the typical dishes for Vietnamese cuisine.

A bowl of Hanoi beef noodle soup
A bowl of Hanoi beef noodle soup

The main ingredients of pho are rice noodle soup and broth (or broth as it is called in the South) along with thinly sliced ​​beef or chicken. In addition, there are spices such as: soy sauce, pepper, lemon, fish sauce, chili ... These spices are added depending on the taste of the user.


Pho is usually used to make breakfast in the morning or dinner at night; but in big cities, this dish can be enjoyed all day. In the southern provinces of Vietnam and some other regions, pho is presented with a plate of herbs such as onions, bean sprouts and the leaves of coriander and basil, in which coriander is the typical leaf of pho; However, in Hanoi normally there will not be this plate of raw vegetables. Pho is usually beef pho or chicken noodle soup, but sometimes there are other variations such as pho with wine sauce, dry pho, fried pho...


The broth for pho is usually a clear broth made from beef bones (or pork bones), accompanied by a variety of spices including cinnamon, anise, grilled ginger, cardamom, sage, cloves, coriander seeds, and dried onions. Grilled... The meat used for pho is beef (with all kinds of corn, encrusted, raisin or fully cooked) or chicken (boiled old chicken, torn meat for rich sweet meat). "Banh Pho" is traditionally made from rice flour, coated in thin sheets and then cut into fibers. Pho is always enjoyed while still hot. Accordingly, to have a delicious and flavorful bowl of pho, this also depends a lot on the skill of the cook, the most important of which is the pot of broth.



Source

One of the first documents mentioning pho is the Sino-Vietnamese dictionary Nhat Dung Thuong Dam (日用常談) compiled by Pham Dinh Ho in 1827. In the food category, the Chinese word phrase 玉酥餅" Ngoc to Binh" is annotated in Nom as 𩛄普𤙭 "beef noodle soup".


Pho as it is today is said to have been born and shaped in the early 20th century. Hanoi and Nam Dinh are two localities that are often said to be the origin of pho. In Nam Dinh, pho originates from Van Cu village (Dong Son commune, Nam Truc), famous for the Co family who brought the traditional pho cooking profession everywhere to make a living. Pho is believed to have started to be popular in the context of the formation of Nam Dinh Textile Factory. Pho has also appeared in Hanoi since the early 20th century, this is also known as the place that made this dish famous.


It is said that pho originated from a Cantonese dish called "Nu hummong" (Chinese: 牛肉粉; pinyin: niúròu fěn; Yueping: ngau4 juk6 fan2).


There is also another theory that, pho originated from the French method of preparing beef stew pot-au-feu (pronounced "po to pho") combined with spices and herbs in the cuisine. Vietnam.

Bowl of cooked beef noodle soup and stir fry
Bowl of cooked beef noodle soup and stir fry

There is also an opinion that pho originated from the Vietnamese dish "Xo Xo Xuong" (using vermicelli noodles) and was later transformed into "Xo Xo Bo" using banh cuon.


The birth age of pho is not officially recorded. Vietnamese dictionaries such as Alexandre de Rhodes' Vietnamese - Portuguese - La Dictionary published in 1651 do not have the word "pho". Huynh Tinh Cua Dictionary (1895), Genibrel Dictionary (1898) too


P.Huard and M.Durand analyzed the Nom word pho consisting of three Chinese characters: a/me (rice), b/language (speech), c/popular (popular).


The word pho is understood as a dish made from rice that is popular among the masses and pronounced "spectrum". The voices of street vendors are inherently melodious with rhymes, rhythms, sometimes even as if they are singing, with enough sharp sounds pouring into the listener's ears.


Nguyen Cong Hoan (1903-1977) noted: "1913... inn at No. 8 Hang Hai... sometimes eat pho in the evening. Each bowl is 2 cents, there's a bowl of 3 cents, 5 cents"

The sound of pho noodle soup in Nom: "This street, o street! The noun pho was officially first published in the Vietnamese dictionary (1930) initiated by Khai Tri Tien Duc Association: "Food made of diced cakes. cooked with beef"


In 1939, chicken noodle soup appeared, because then there were two days a week: Monday and Friday there was no beef for sale. It is not clear why this incident happened, but perhaps one reason that cannot be ignored is that cattle slaughter was always restricted during the feudal period, because cattle were still the main pulling force for Vietnam's wet rice agriculture. Male. Therefore, many beef noodle shop owners had to close on two days without beef during the week, creating favorable conditions for chicken noodle soup to develop. Since 1939, two dishes of beef noodle soup and chicken noodle soup have officially reigned and accompanied each other in the heart of Vietnamese cuisine.


Nutritional value

Pho is a combination of flavors. In a bowl of pho, there are 18-20 foods of natural plant and animal origin. The most special thing about pho is that the ingredients are used almost in their original state and work together in harmony to create a unique, delicious, and easy-to-digest flavor.

chicken noodle soup
chicken noodle soup

Broth is an important part of pho. Calcium from bones and marrow; The slime from the cartilage tendons dissolves, which are extremely good active ingredients for treating joint diseases in old age and helping to develop the body at a young age. In the broth, there is also flavor dissolved from dry ingredients such as cardamom, coriander seeds, cinnamon stick, pepper, ginger, onion, fish sauce, salt... is a source of minerals (iron). , zinc) and vitamins (Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, vitamin B5) to help improve blood quality and contribute to the protection of blood vessel walls.

Beef is high in ammonium acids, Creatinine, carnitine and the mineral potassium that support muscle growth. It contains about 50% of unsaturated fats, cytocilin and vitamin B12, and fresh vegetables, fruits and vegetables that regulate cholesterol in the blood and cells of the human body.


Fresh noodle soup provides a lot of nutrition for each diner (3 mg protein, 0.5 mg B1, 1.2 mg B5/bowl).


Pho processing

Cooking broth

In pho, the stage of making broth (also known as broth) is the most important step. The broth of traditional pho is made from beef bones along with some spices. The bones must be washed, scraped off all the meat clinging to the bones and put in a pot with cold water.


The first time the bone broth must be poured out so that the broth does not get contaminated with the bad smell of the beef bones, the next time it is used to make the broth. Roasted ginger and onion are also added. The heat is turned on high to bring the water to a boil, when the water has boiled, reduce the heat and start skimming. When the foam has been removed, add a little cold water and wait for the water to continue to boil to remove the foam... Keep doing this continuously until the water is clear and there is no more residue in the foam. Then, add a little seasoning and adjust the heat so that the pot of water is only simmering to keep the water from becoming cloudy and the sweetness from the bones to have enough time to dissolve into the broth. The delicious taste of the broth is mainly determined by the spices.

Pho in Australia uses a lot of bones, opaque color
Pho in Australia uses a lot of bones, opaque color

However, the recipe of each specific broth for each noodle shop is kept quite secret. Even so, these spices can be noticed including cardamom, ginger, star anise, cloves, coriander seeds, cinnamon stick, dried onion, young shrimp, and traditionally, a tail. cow.

Originally, to increase the sweetness that is rich in amino acids of pho broth, traditionally, when there was no MSG (main noodles), the ancients used shrimp. The way to cook the broth today has differences depending on the locality, such as the North often uses a lot of main noodles (especially during the subsidy period, including "unmanned" - meatless pho), while many places in the South cook broth with chicken bones and add dried squid.


Present

First, put the noodles in boiling water, drain and then put them in a bowl to eat. Then, use chopsticks to stir the pho noodles so that they don't stick together. Next, put the sliced beef or depending on the taste of the eater, arrange it in rare, encrusted, veal, bucket.... how to cleverly let each chopsticks pick up the pho noodles with the diners' meat. . In addition to the white color of the noodle soup, the brown color of the beef or the yellow color in the bucket, scallions, onions and cilantro also contribute to adorn the bowl of pho more beautifully and deliciously. For the step of pouring the pho broth into the new bowl, it is very elaborate because the water is delicious but must be spread evenly on the top of the bowl of pho, around the piece of meat, then the meat is still cooked evenly while still keeping the green color of the scallions, onions and cilantro. on a bowl of pho.


Variations of Pho

Nowadays, pho has different processing methods and flavors. In Vietnam, there are names to distinguish them: Pho Bac (in the North), Pho Hue (in the Central region) and Pho Saigon (in the South). Normally, the northern pho is characterized by salty taste while the south is sweet and rich in vegetables. Pho in the South is smaller than in the North.

A bowl of chicken noodle soup (Saigon)
A bowl of chicken noodle soup (Saigon)

Previously, only cooked beef pho with full "ripe-corn-encrusted" bucket, later, diners accepted both rare pho and chicken noodle soup. Going further, there are restaurants that experiment with both duck and geese meat, but with little success. In addition, there are a number of dishes made from traditional noodle ingredients such as pho roll, the type of pho that appeared in the 1970s was fried pho, in the 1980s was fried pho...


In addition to the traditional processing methods of pho chan with broth, nowadays people also create many other types of pho such as roll noodle, pan-fried noodle, stir-fried noodle, beef noodle soup with satay... and pho in the seafood processing industry. food such as instant pho, vegetarian pho, industrial pho...

Sautéed beef pho
Sautéed beef pho

In Hanoi, it is popular to eat pho with quail while Saigon people only eat banh mi with porridge. Gia Lai people have dry noodle soup, also known as "two bowl noodle soup", with small and tough noodles like My Tho noodles and a separate cup of broth.


And some food business people now abuse the name "pho" to call some dishes that are not pho at all due to different ingredients and processing methods, different spices and different forms.


In particular, there are shops selling pho with Kobe beef for up to 850,000 VND in Hanoi [10] or AnQi noodle bowl at Tiato restaurant in California with the most expensive grade A 5 Wagyu Kobe beef, extremely rare blue lobster, good quality white truffle alba, rich foie gras broth and starting at $5,000 to help with a children's hospital charity.


Pho Hanoi

In Hanoi, pho is a special dish. Pho is served exclusively as a breakfast, lunch or dinner dish. The broth of pho is made from the broth of beef bones: lump bone, tubular bone and clavicle. Meat used for pho can be beef, or chicken. Pho must be thin and chewy, the seasoning of pho is scallions, pepper, chili vinegar, sliced lemon.

From the French colonial period, Pho Hanoi first appeared in the form of "Pho burden". Those are street vendors. On their double burdens, one side is a homemade container with enough ingredients to make pho and bowls, plates, chopsticks and spoons; On the other side is a pot of broth placed on a coal stove. Before 1980, such pho vendors went through the rows and alleys of Hanoi with the familiar shouts of Ha Thanh's nightlife food culture. Today, as society develops, the number of restaurants increases, and "pho burden" appears less and less. Among them, Hang Trong Pho is still famous.

A longtime pho shop in Hanoi
A longtime pho shop in Hanoi

From the mid-1960s to before the 1990s of the 20th century, for many reasons, the most important reason being the subsidized administrative management of food and foodstuffs, in Hanoi and many northern provinces appeared "driverless pho". " (a kind of noodle soup with only broth, no meat) in state-owned commercial stores. The quality of the state-owned pho in these stores depends entirely on the limited skills of the non-specialist staff, but there are a lot of initiatives. They modified the spices, the way to cook the broth according to what they had, they obtained in the wartime situation of lack of everything. An "innovation" of this period was the "driverless" pho served with bread or cold rice.


Also from the subsidy period, in Hanoi, people often have the habit of adding more noodles to the broth. Along with the renovation period from the 90s, pho has become more abundant and Hanoians often eat pho with small pieces (from the 60s to the mid-1980s, but due to the difficult period, the dough was lost about half a year). 1995 is back.)


The first noodle shop of Vietnamese people in Hanoi from the carry-on to the shop is said to be Pho Cat Tuong (Cau Go Street) from the early 20th century. In Hanoi today, there are many famous pho shops that have been handed down for two to three generations. Famous heirloom pho brands that are known by many people can be mentioned as: Pho Bat Dan, Salty Pho Gam Cau, Pho Sung, Pho Vui, Pho Me, Pho Thin Bo Ho, Pho Thin Lo Duc. Many noodle shops hang the sign "Pho heirloom Nam Dinh", especially for those of the Co family, also contributing significantly to the list of famous pho restaurants in Hanoi such as Pho Cu Chieu - Hang Dong, Pho Co Thuong - Thai Thinh, Pho Co Cu - Thuy Khue. Nam Dinh Pho restaurant in Hanoi is usually quite spacious, selling all kinds of beef noodle soup (water noodle soup, stir-fried pho, mixed pho, re-rolled pho), plus fried rice, fried noodles.


Nam Dinh Beef Pho

Nam Dinh Beef Pho is a popular dish of Nam Dinh, Nam Dinh Pho also has the same characteristics as pho of other regions, including rice noodle soup, noodle soup, beef or chicken, and some accompanying condiments. , but bring something else comprehensive that is hard to confuse. Nam Dinh noodle soup is a special type with delicious and soft microfiber, different from other regions. The beef is thinly sliced, pounded, dipped and picked up in the right time, so it's soft to eat while keeping the freshness and nutrition of the meat... And when it comes to water, it's often "heirloom". Pho makers often keep their secret to making pho broth a secret and only pass it on to the next generation in the family.


Heirloom pho in Nam Dinh is mainly derived from overseas Chinese in Giao Cu village and from the Co family in Van Cu village, Dong Son commune, (Nam Truc district). After that, it was transmitted to the neighboring villages, but it was processed, no longer intact as before and added some additives. In the 1950s, the Nam Dinh people brought pho to Hanoi and sold it on trolleys. From the mid-60s to before the 90s of the 20th century, for many reasons, the most important reason was the subsidized administrative management of food and foodstuffs, Nam Dinh pho was absent in other localities, but since 90 Recently, Pho Nam Dinh has recovered and is growing stronger and stronger. Currently, villagers in Van Cu, Giao Cu and neighboring villages go everywhere from the North to the South to open pho shops to earn a living and preserve a delicious Vietnamese food.


Pho Saigon

Pho originated in the North of Vietnam, entered the Central and South Vietnam in 1954, bringing with it pho and pho began to have differences. In the South, especially in Saigon, beef in pho is often sold in 5 styles: cooked, rare, encrusted, bucket, tendon depending on the customer's liking, in addition to a cup of fatty water (the fat of beef bones) ) to separate if guests want. Pho in the South is usually sold with sweet soy sauce (black sauce), red chili sauce and lemon, fresh chili, coriander, basil, bean sprouts (boiled or eaten raw), thinly sliced ​​onions (can be eaten raw) pickled with vinegar), which are must-have vegetables, usually placed separately in a plate or basket sold with each bowl of pho, guests can take whatever they like and put it in their own bowl. Later, many shops also added to that vegetable plate: cilantro (coriander), Lang basil, long green onion, other herbs.... Pho broth (soup) is usually not removed MSG (main noodles). ) as in Hanoi and has a slightly opaque color, not as clear as Pho Bac, sometimes sweeter, fatter and cooked with chicken bones, adding dried squid or grilled onions and grilled ginger.


Pho Saigon
Pho Saigon

Vegetable plate to go with the pho
Vegetable plate to go with the pho


Spices to eat with pho
Spices to eat with pho

There were quite a few famous pho restaurants in Saigon before 1975: Pho Cong Ly, Pho Tau Bay (the owner's real name is Pham Dang Nhan), Pho Tau Thuy, Pho Dau (Nam Ky Khoi Nghia Street, District 3), Pho Phu Gia (Ly Chinh Thang street, district 3 specializes in pho with northern flavor), Pho Pasteur street (with many noodle shops specializing in beef noodle soup), Hien Vuong pho street (specializing in chicken noodle soup); Pho Cao Van (Mac Dinh Chi Street, District 1 of Mr. Tran Van Phon). Most of these pho shops are still present, passed on to my life, but "no longer have the strong scent" and "no longer as springy as before 75"


Pho Ha Giang

Pho Trang Kim Ha Giang is one of the specialties of the region. The dish is famous not only for being delicious and attractive but also very "strange" in its processing.


Specifically, Pho Trang Kim - a specialty of Quyet Tien commune, Quan Ba ​​district is a familiar breakfast dish of market-goers and visitors to Ha Giang, especially long-distance drivers.

At first glance, Pho Trang Kim Ha Giang is quite similar to Pho Hanoi or Pho Nam Dinh. However, the difference that makes the dish unique is in the delicate and skillful processing, carefully selected ingredients.


Trang Kim noodle soup in Ha Giang is made by hand. Rice flour is milled by hand, then coated and "dried" right on the stove. When the pho is dry, it is those hands that cut out the big, tough and thick noodle. The broth not only has a sweet taste from the bones but also smells of ginger, cinnamon, anise, cardamom and many other spices of the ethnic people. Served with pho is thick, delicious hill chicken that is boiled and sliced. In particular, people here use turmeric when boiling chicken so that the meat has an eye-catching bright yellow color. Moreover, the bowls of Pho Trang Kim will always be full, with lots of meat, lots of cake, hot and very tasty.


Instant Pho

Absorbing technology from instant noodles, instant noodle soup was born. At the forefront of instant noodle production is Acecook Vietnam. In 2006, Acecook Vietnam produced instant noodles from rice flour. Up to now, instant pho has been exported to 42 countries around the world and accounts for 10% of Acecook Vietnam's exports. Each year, this enterprise uses 20,000 tons of rice to produce rice-based products, revenue from these items in 2017 accounted for 18% of total sales, reaching VND 1,500 billion.


Applying science and technology

In 2006, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tran Doan Son (University of Science and Technology, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City) successfully invented a one-touch fresh noodle-making machine - a push button exported to the United States, this head Put the flour in, the other end comes out fresh noodles in just five minutes. In January 2007, Imperial company (USA) signed to import seven machines at the price of 6,500 USD/machine.

From 2012 onwards, the noodle soup system has been modernized with high technology with the support of the electronics - informatics industry. The continuous stainless steel pot system is applied to the production of semi-automatic or fully automatic stewing pots. The fully automatic high-end type also has a program that simulates the traditional bone-cooking mode, which automatically regulates the temperature and simmering time for very high quality of broth. The system also has a drain valve to help wash and clean the pot.


In popular culture

Pho culture

Vietnamese pho restaurants still keep the habit of rarely bringing menus to customers, but customers will have to choose what kind of pho (for example, beef noodle soup, chicken noodle soup...). Pho is served in a bowl. Usually, the tables are numbered to serve, on which are available chopsticks, spoons and condiments accompanying pho such as: soy sauce, lemon, fish sauce, chili ...

Designer Yanko Design has designed a special and convenient noodle bowl with a separate compartment for the attached additive.


Literature and art

May be mentioned as:

Poet Tu Mo with the poem Pho Duc Chan

"Trong các món ăn "quân tử vị",

Phở là quà đáng quý trên đời.

Một vài xu, nào đắt đỏ mấy mươi,

Mà đủ vị: ngọt, bùi, thơm, béo, bổ.

Náy bánh cuốn, này thịt bò, này nước dùng sao nhánh mỡ,

Ngọn rau thơm, hành củ thái trên.

Nước mắm, hồ tiêu, cùng dấm, ớt điểm thêm,

Khói nghi ngút đưa lên thơm ngát mũi.

Như xúc động tới ruột gan bàn phổi,

Như giục khơi cái đói của con tì.

Dẫu sơn hào, hải vị khôn bì,

Xới một bát nhiều khi chưa thích miệng.

Kẻ phú quý cho chí người bần tiện,

Hỏi ai là đã nếm không ưa,

..........

Cùng các cao lương vạn quốc phô trương,

Ngon lại rẻ, thường hay quán giải.

Sống trên đời, phở không ăn cũng dại,

Lúc buông tay ắt phải cúng kem.

Ai ơi, nếm thử kẻo thèm."



Writer Thach Lam wrote in the book Hanoi hashed six streets:

"Pho is a special gift of Hanoi, not only in Hanoi, but because it is delicious only in Hanoi." Good pho must be the "classic" pho, cooked with beef, "the broth is clear and sweet, the cake is flexible but not crushed, the fatty meat is crispy but not chewy, the chili lime and onion are enough", "fresh herbs, Northern peppercorns, drops of lime com, and a little bit of ca cuong, as mild as a doubt." In the 1940s, pho was very popular in Hanoi: "It is an all-day snack for all people, especially civil servants and workers. People eat pho for breakfast, eat pho at lunch, and eat pho. dark...."

  • The painting "Ganh pho street" in Hanoi depicts a noodle vendor in Hanoi's Old Quarter, painted in 1913 by French painter Maurice Salge.

  • Pho also appears in couplets in folk tales. To the flirtation of male diners, the owner of the pho restaurant - a young woman who lost her husband replied: What's the point of being lean, I think it's ripe, don't tell me remarriage. This entry has just five words related to pho (lean, fat, ripe, rare, price), and reminds: Think carefully yourself, don't propose to get married again. Among the eight opposites recorded by Lang Nhan, there is the opposite of a fortune-teller: Qian Wise will wear it everywhere, he wants to re-seed, no matter what he can't do. This opposite has five words related to divination (gan, wise, sowing, can, chi) and reveals the plot even if we have nothing to do with it.

In overseas

The Vietnamese who crossed the border after the Vietnam War and settled in Western countries made pho known in many parts of the world. There have been many pho restaurants in the United States, France, Australia and Canada. Vietnamese people who study abroad, work abroad in socialist countries, and then settle down also bring pho to Eastern Europe such as Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic.

A bowl of chicken noodle soup in Warsaw, Poland
A bowl of chicken noodle soup in Warsaw, Poland

Pho has gradually spread to the American community. Most Vietnamese pho restaurants in the US use dry noodle soup instead of fresh noodle soup like in Vietnam for easy storage reasons. Pho is very popular in California, especially in the Little Saigon area. There are old shops that have been open for more than 40 years, and there are new shops for a few years. The shop has numerical names like pho 54, pho 45, pho 86. The shop carries strange names like Pho Lu, Pho Tau Bay, or very Vietnamese names like Pho Nguyen Hue, Pho Quang Trung. There are many other shops that do not have the word "pho" in the signboard, but there is no shortage of this typical Vietnamese dish.

Pho restaurant in Hong Kong
Pho restaurant in Hong Kong

Not only Vietnamese people cook pho, but Americans also open pho restaurants. In 1990, an American chef named Didi Emmons opened his first pho restaurant in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and then quickly spread to many US states. In the United States alone, unofficial statistics in 2005 showed that the revenue of Vietnamese pho shops in the United States amounted to about 500 million USD a year.

A pho restaurant in Paris, France
A pho restaurant in Paris, France

In May 2009, Mr. Nguyen Trong Thin, owner of a noodle shop in Lo Duc (Hanoi), received an invitation from a Korean director saying he wanted to open Vietnamese pho in Seoul. After receiving Mr. Thin's pho cooking technique, the Korean side asked him to cooperate in opening a pho restaurant in Seoul, but because of the business at home, he refused and gave the recipe back to them to operate on their own. and they opened two Pho Tang (Pho Tang - with the implication that pho cooked from a recipe given by Vietnamese people). In 2019, Pho Thin Lo Duc appeared overseas in Tokyo, Japan and Melbourne, Australia.

A pho restaurant in California
A pho restaurant in California

Pho 24 is the first Vietnamese brand to franchise a pho restaurant and has built a system of more than 20 pho shops outside of Vietnam, mainly in the Asia-Pacific region. from 2003 to 2011). Since the first franchise store in Jakarta in 2005, Pho 24 has been present in many big cities around the world such as Seoul, Hong Kong, London, Melbourne...


Pho day

In 2016, the Japanese chose April 4 as the annual Vietnamese Pho Day in Japan. April 4 was chosen because the number 4 (four) in English and the word "pho" are both transliterated in Japanese as フォー (fō) to make it easier for people to remember.

In Vietnam, on December 12, 2017, Tuoi Tre newspaper cooperated with Acecook Vietnam Company to organize Pho Day for the first time. This will be an annual tradition. From 2018, "Pho Day" will be organized into a tourism and cultural community activity.



Pho menu

Pho is served in a bowl with shredded pho noodles in a clear beef broth, with thinly sliced beef (encrusted, fat, lean, breast). Varieties with ribbed, bacon or slow-cooked meatballs in South Vietnam. Chicken pho is made using the same seasonings as beef, but the broth is made with the bones and meat of the chicken, as well as some of the chicken's offal such as intestines, undeveloped eggs, and gizzards.

When eating at pho restaurants in Vietnam, customers are often asked what part of the beef they like and how they would like it to be prepared.


Beef portions include:

  • Phở Tái băm: Rare beef patty, beef is minced by a chopping knife right before serving

  • Phở Tái: Medium Rare Meat

  • Phở Tái sống: Rare meat

  • Phở Tái chín: Mixture of medium rare meat and pre-cooked well-done meat, the default serving in most pho restaurants

  • Phở Tái lăn: Meat is sauteed before adding to the soup

  • Phở Tái nạm: Mix of medium rare meat with flank

  • Phở Nạm: Flank cut

  • Phở Nạm gầu: Brisket

  • Phở Gân: Tendons

  • Phở Sách: Beef tripe

  • Phở Tiết: Boiled beef blood

  • Phở Bò viên: Beef ball

  • Phở Trứng tái: Poached chicken egg (served in a separated bowl)

For chicken pho include:

  • Phở Gà đùi: Chicken thigh

  • Phở Gà lườn: Chicken breast

  • Phở Lòng gà: Chicken innards

  • Phở Trứng non: Immature chicken eggs

Other Pho dishes

Phở có nhiều biến thể, trong đó có nhiều món mang tên "phở", nhiều món không phải là súp:

Đặc sản Hà Nội:

  • Phở sốt vang: Wine-sauced pho, with beef stewed in red wine.

  • Phở xào: sauteed pho noodles with beef and vegetables.

  • Phở áp chảo: similar to phở xào but stir-fried with more oil and gets more burned.

  • Phở cuốn: phở ingredients rolled up and eaten as a gỏi cuốn.

  • Phở trộn (mixed Pho): pho noodles and fresh herbs and dressings, served as a salad.

Các tỉnh thành khác:

  • Phở chua: meaning sour phở is a delicacy from Lạng Sơn city.

  • Phở khô Gia Lai: an unrelated soup dish from Gia Lai.

  • Phở sắn: a tapioca noodle dish from Quế Sơn District, Quảng Nam. It is closer to mì Quảng.

  • Phở sa tế: pho noodles with chili and peanut sauce, came from Teochew immigrants in southern Vietnam.

  • Phở vịt: duck pho, a specialty of Cao Bang province.

  • Phở gan cháy: meaning grilled liver pho, a specialty found in Bắc Ninh city.

  • Phở chiên trứng : This means a variant that pho is deep-fried with eggs

  • Phở chiên phồng : This variant is the same as the previous but without eggs and looks like pillows


Through the above article, we have introduced all and Pho - the most famous Vietnamese dish in the world. Thank you all for reading this article.


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