Shooting began on 13 May 2010 in Scotland under the working title The Grave at Angel's Peak. Julian Gilbey shot the film from the screenplay \"The Long Weekend\" by Will Gilbey. The film is produced by Carnaby International, the studio behind Doghouse. Franka Potente was originally cast for the role as Alison and was later replaced by Melissa George.
In recent years, U.S. death rates in winter months have been 8 to 12 percent higher than in non-winter months.1 Much of this increase relates to seasonal changes in behavior and the human body, as well as increased exposure to respiratory diseases. Cold temperatures can also worsen pre-existing medical conditions such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. For example, death rates from heart attacks increase as temperatures drop, likely due to the way cold affects blood circulation, blood vessels, and other factors.2,3 Even moderately cold days can increase the risk of death for many people. People exposed to extremely cold conditions can also suffer from direct effects such as frostbite and potentially deadly hypothermia, especially in places where people are not accustomed to cold temperatures.
Certain population groups face higher risks of cold-related illness or death. For example, occupational groups that work outdoors during winter months, such as agricultural workers, construction workers, and electricity and pipeline utility workers, face higher risks of exposure to cold.4 Others at risk include older adults, infants, people with pre-existing medical conditions, people taking medications or using drugs (especially alcohol) that make them more susceptible to cold effects, homeless people, and those with inadequate winter clothing or home heating.5
Unusually cold winter temperatures have become less common across the contiguous 48 states in recent decades,6 particularly very cold nights (see the High and Low Temperatures indicator). Extreme cold waves are likely to continue to decrease as winter temperatures increase in the future.7 This winter warming is expected to reduce the number of direct cold-related deaths, but the decrease is projected to be smaller than increases in heat-related deaths (see the Heat-Related Deaths indicator) in most regions.8 This is because some of the factors that lead to higher death rates in the winter are not particularly sensitive to climate change,9 because extreme heat has a more immediate and direct effect on death rates than extreme cold,10 and because the solutions to protect against cold exposure (such as staying indoors, wearing more clothing, turning on the heat) are more widely accessible than protection against extreme heat.11 Cold-related death rates can change as communities strengthen their cold weather plans and take other steps to protect vulnerable people during cold winter months.
Figure 1 shows cold-related death rates using two methods. One method shows deaths for which exposure to excessive natural cold was stated as the underlying cause of death from 1979 to 2016. The other data series shows deaths for which cold was listed as either the underlying cause or a contributing cause, based on a broader set of data that, at present, can only be evaluated for the years 1999 to 2015. For example, in a case where cardiovascular disease was determined to be the underlying cause of death, cold could be listed as a contributing factor because it can make the individual more susceptible to the effects of this disease.
Several factors influence the ability of this indicator to estimate the true number of deaths associated with exposure to cold temperatures. Some cold-related deaths are not identified as such by the medical examiner and might not be properly coded on the death certificate. In many cases, the medical examiner might classify the cause of death as a cardiovascular or respiratory disease, not knowing for certain whether cold was a contributing factor. Furthermore, deaths can occur from exposure to cold (either as an underlying cause or as a contributing factor) that is not classified as extreme and therefore is often not recorded as such. These factors are similar to the factors that likely lead to undercounting of heat-related deaths (see the Heat-Related Deaths indicator), except that the effects of cold on the body tend to persist for longer than the effects of heat,14 which could make it even more difficult to connect deaths to exposures.
Climate change is associated with substantial swings in extreme hot and cold temperatures, so the researchers examined both in the current study. For this analysis, researchers compared cardiovascular deaths on the hottest and the coldest 2.5% of days for each city with cardiovascular deaths on the days that had optimal temperature (the temperature associated with the least rates of deaths) in the same city.
If you're unsure where to get help, your health care provider is a good place to start. Your health care provider can refer you to a qualified mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, who has experience treating eating disorders.
Move your pet into the shade or an air-conditioned area. Apply ice packs or cold towels to their head, neck and chest or run cool (not cold) water over them. Let them drink small amounts of cool water or lick ice cubes. Take them directly to a veterinarian.
These files do not constitute a user-friendly data collection which the average user can download and access. These are the basic underlying raw data files, together with the necessary instructions, file structures, code reference tables, etc. which can be used by institutions and organizations which need access at this level of detail mainly for research purposes and have available the required information technology (IT) resources to use this information. These files will not open in programs like Excel; please refer to the \"Documentation.zip\" file hereafter for more information on systems requirements.
You are being provided herewith the original detailed data files which comprise the WHO Mortality DataBase (MDB). Due to the large size of these files, they are provided in ASCII (comma separated values) format to facilitate the download process. You should import these data files into a Database Management System rather than spreadsheets. These are the basic underlying detailed data files, together with the necessary instructions, file structures, code reference tables, etc. for use by those who need access to the full level of detail for specific analyses. Instructions for importing the comma separated values files into Microsoft Access are listed in Annex Table 3 of the \"Documentation.zip\" file. However users are strongly recommended not to try to import the data into spreadsheets because of the excessive number of records. There are over 2 million records in one data file.
Death registration coverage and cross-national differences in coding practices, particularly in the use of codes for ill-defined and unknown causes, must be taken into account to validly compare mortality rates for specific causes across countries. WHO-validated estimates of total deaths by cause, age and sex for WHO regions and subregions for 2004 and 2008 may be downloaded from the Burden of Disease website.
When the climate is too cold it is necessary for the black daisies to propagate in order to raise the temperature, and vice versa -- when the climate is too warm, it is necessary for more white daisies to be produced in order to cool the temperature. For a wide range of parameter settings, the temperature and the population of daisies will eventually stabilize. However, it is possible for Daisyworld to get either too hot or too cold, in which case the daisies are not able to bring the temperature back under control and all of the daisies will eventually die.
Communities are already experiencing a changing climate as temperature extremes become a familiar trend around the globe. How much is temperature to blame when hospital visits increase during heat waves and cold spells What role do adaptations like indoor heating and cooling systems play in blunting these effects And, at what cost Empirical evidence of the risks extreme temperatures pose to human health is limited since fatalities often come from periods of heat or cold that worsen underlying conditions. Individual deaths are rarely attributed to temperature surges, so public health officials and policymakers often invest less in addressing and responding to climate change. The answers to these questions would inform policymakers, city planners, business leaders, and a range of stakeholders who are preparing to mitigate and adapt as the climate becomes more unstable.
Extreme heat impacts societies in many ways. One consequence that affects both the economy and human well-being is the toll heat takes on health, causing heat strokes and exacerbating existing respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. Heat places the body under great stress, straining the circulatory systems, and is particularly dangerous to very young children and those over 65. Reports of people dying from the heat can dominate headlines, with France reporting that 1,500 people died from the hot temperatures in Summer 2019. However, in general, research indicates that heat-related mortality is substantially underreported in the media, as it takes time for the full picture of excess mortality to emerge.
By combining these records with decades of detailed daily and local temperature observations, the authors discover that extreme cold and extreme heat have important effects on death rate